When you import file from Windows OS (or even from old Macintosh OS) you most likely have the ^M at the end of each line. Systems based on ASCII or a compatible character set use either LF (Line Feed, 0x0A, n) or CR (Carriage Return, 0x0D, r) individually, or CR followed by LF (CR+LF, 0x0D 0x0A, rn). Below is a quick list of OS using which convention :
- LF : UNIX and UNIX-Like systems, Linux, AIX, Xenix, Mac OS X, BeOS, Amiga, RISC OS...
- CR+LF : CP/M, MP/M, DOS, OS/2, Microsoft Windows (all versions)
- CR : Commodore machines, Apple II family and Mac OS through version 9
The different newline conventions often cause text files that have been transferred between systems of different types to be displayed incorrectly. For example, files originating on Unix or Apple Macintosh systems may appear as a single long line on a Windows system. Conversely, when viewing a file from a Windows computer on a Unix system, the extra CR may be displayed as ^M at the end of each line or as a second line break.
You can convert with editors relatively small files. For larger files on Windows NT/2000/XP you can use the following command:
TYPE unix_file | FIND "" /V > dos_file
On Unix, a DOS/Windows text file can be converted to Unix format by simply using the tool dos2unix or by removing all ASCII CR characters with the command "tr".
tr -d &#8216;\r&#8217; < inputfile > outputfile
You can add an alias to your shell startup script to create easy to remember variations of the tr command for each purpose.
Using bash as an example, edit .bashrc and add these lines.
alias cvtCR="tr '\r' '\n'"
alias cvtCRLF="tr -d '\r'";
You now have two new commands that you can type from the command line.
To try the commands out right away, without opening a new terminal, you
need to tell bash to re-read it’s startup file by typing
Now you are ready to try out the new commands.
To convert an old MAC file you would type
cvtCR < MACFILE > UNIXFILE This will read a file named MACFILE and create a file named UNIXFILE that has all of the r’s converted to n’s For DOS files, you just want to remove the darn r’s so in cvtCRLF the -d tells tr to delete them. If you wan to update a sample file you can use you favorite editor : VI !
Becarefull, you get the cariage return symbols by the keystroke CTRL+V+ENTER.
You probably already have an idle ssh connection that you can’t leave because of a tcp timeout somewhere on the network or a bad command that you executed. What to do with this idle session ? Easy, just use the exit sequence ~.(tilde and a period) then you could open a new session properly.
I had to monitor the Raid 5 status of two PE 2650 with a PERC3/Di and running under a GNU Debian. You can get the CLI tool afacli from dell website. Originally it was only available for windows or red-hat and it was necessary to tweak this stuff using Alien software for converting rpm to deb packages.
nicolas@grimm:~$ wget http://linux.dell.com/files/aacraid/afaapps-2.6-0.tar.gz nicolas@grimm:~$ sudo tar -Pvzxf afaapps-2.6-0.tar.gz # Normally you should have a device afa0 created. If not, check that devicename = "aac" in the file /dev/MAKEDEV.afa then do the following step : cd /dev ./MAKEDEV.afa afa0
More information is available on the Dell website.
Now that we have a running AFACLI we can do a little script for checking hourly our raid status. Main thing to know with afacli - as lot of other CLI tool - is the HELP command. First you will have to open your device with the command open afa0 then you could check your container list, disk list etc. Due to network constraint I could only use an SSH connection, so for schedule this script I use a special user named xfertuser on each box for doing an SSH KEY AUTH. When my user is logon the remote box, I execute some command on AFACLI and use a simple diff on last afacli log file and the new afacli log file. Then in last step Icheck the messages log for AACRAID error messages.
Do you know the environment variable $CDPATH? This variable let you define some path where to look for a directories when moving with the command CD. You can define multiple path in this variable. This can be usefull if you have some directories that you access more frequently than the others. As this variable define the order how you move from a directory to another, I suggest you to keep the "." directory in first position of your variable declaration. Of course, you can set this variable in your .bashrc
nicolas@grimm:~$ export CDPATH=.:/:~/ nicolas@grimm:~$ cd usr<br /> /usr<br /> nicolas@grimm:/usr$ cd Desktop<br /> /home/nicolas/Desktop
On some computer that I have to manage remotly I can have some windows upgrade done. But in some case (new software install, or windows update to SP2) the windows firewall is automatically started and you can lost some software access (example : VNC). In my case, the firewalling is managed by another computer (A linux one) on the network and we need for some of our software to have full access to the network without the risk of a windows alert popup. So, I put a small batch file in the Start-up directory with the following line :
NETSH FIREWALL SET OPMODE DISABLE
Now, I’m sure that the firewall will never restart at the boot of the computer. Of course, this configuration require a firewall somewhere on your network between your computer and the internet, don’t forget this or you probably regret it one day.