The correct way to start the apache server is to use the apachectl command.
You can also check your configuration files.
A common error is probably this one :
(98)Address already in use: make_sock: could not bind to address 0.0.0.0:443
no listening sockets available, shutting down
This is caused by one or more processes running on the 443 (secure socket) port. You can get all the process ID’s that are running on this port with the command fuser or a more classical “ps auxww” with a less readable format.
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Other typical error would be those following :
(28)No space left on device: Couldn’t create accept lock
(28)No space left on device: mod\_rewrite: could not create rewrite\_log_lock Configuration Failed
Brain dead things is that you have plenty of space on your disk. Problem comes from apache that was not shutdown properly and lets lot of semaphore-arrays left. So, here comes ipcs command. ipcs provides information on the ipc facilities for which the calling process has read acccess.
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Before restart your apache you have to remove all this semaphore arrays by using ipcrm. ipcrm remove a message queue, semaphore set or shared memory id.
Now you should be able to start your apache. Lot of other error can happens. first thing to do is to take a look at your error log file then googleize ! ;-)